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THE MERCHANT SHIPPER                            13

The illustration shows a gramophone packed in a case.
The case must be large enough to enclose the whole of the
cabinet; it would be folly to attempt to pack the case in any
other fashion. Therefore, the space marked " B " inside the
case remains empty, and consequently the shipper has to
pay freight on the empty space contained in the case. This
adds to the cost of the shipping, and incidentally to the cost
of the gramophone when offered for sale in the foreign
market.

The packer, therefore, seeking to use this space in the
best manner possible, would arrange with the supplier to
approach the buyer to take with each cabinet gramophone,
a few portables. This, if so agreed, provides the necessary
cargo which may be stowed in the space "B," and con-
sequently the portable gramophones are carried by the
shipping company without increase of freight.

This is but one of the examples where wasted space may
be used to the advantage of the shipper, at no additional
cost to himself.

When goods are packed the cases must be marked clearly,
showing the mark, number, and port of destination. Marks
are used purely for identity purposes, but such marking
must be made in a dear fashion and in such manner as to
remain legible for the whole of the voyage in prospect.
Reference to the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1924, willjl
show that it is the duty of the shipper clearly to mark hisl\
cases.

Having packed the case the merchant arranges the ship-
ment of the goods, or employs a shipping agent for this
purpose. Or again the forwarding department of the
shipping company itself may be employed for this service.
As all operate in a similar fashion we will assume the
merchant arranges his own shipment.

He finds a suitable sailing which win fit bis requirements
and approaches the shipping company with the request for
them to book space. If the case requires any special care
in regard to stowage, a special stowage order will be issued.
The company will agree to the carriage of the goods and